In addition to the light microscope, the  electron microscopes have opened a great pasture for the biologists as well as other fields who need to work on the minutest details  like the aircraft structure that should not have a microscopic scratch or the  structural consolidation of an alloy so as to say.

In case of electron microscopes, the basic pattern of operation is same, there are the power source, lenses, objectives, specimens but the components differ. Like in an EM, the power source are beam of electrons produced from a tungsten filament at very high temperatures that are guided by electromagnets in the body of the microscope to be incident on the specially prepared specimen. The specimen is coated with heavy metals like osmium or old so that the electrons are reflected off  the surface to form secondary electrons. The secondary electrons are captured and processed to form an image on a fluorescent screen as a negative which is converted by a software into a positive image. This is the Scannimg Electron Microscopy. IN case of transmission Electron MIcroscopy, the specimen   sections by making hard resin blocks and then subjected to the electron beam. Some of the  eletrons are deflected from the surface while others pass through and eventually an image of the interior of the cell is produced..

The different types of microscopes used are
Stereo Microscope, Comparison Microscope, Confocal Microscope, USB Microscope<span MICroscope, Dark Fields MIcroscope, Scanning Tunnelling MIcroscope,  Pterographic Microscope, Polarizing microscope, Epifluorescence  microscope, Confocal microscope  etc.
Limit of resolution of a microscope refers to its ability as to how much it can clearly distinguish between two closely placed points <span and how close they are. . Here , there is an inverse relationship between the limit of resolution and what is actually resolved since the resolution increases as the distance decreases. In order to change it into a direct correlation, the increase of the limit of resolution is used.

Limit of resolution = (0.61 x λ) / N A ( Numerical aperture), resolution =  NA / (0.61 x λ).The Scanning Electron MIcroscope has a resolving power of  (30 -100) Angstrom while that of TEM it is     ( 3-10) Angstrom .The limit of Resolution in a light microscope is about 300 times less than SEM.


Biological Classification–THE FIVE KINGDOMS

The Biological world with incredible diversity has prompted man to try to classify them according to similarity or dissimilarity in characters.IT can be traced back to ages of Aristotle and Plato. However ,in later centuries, Carolus Linnaeus founded the 2 KINGDOM HIERARCHICAL CLASSIFICATION, followed by Robert Whittaker in 1968 ,who pointed the 5 KINGDOM CLASSIFICATION. HOWEVER, this was modified to 6 kingdom classification in later years with 3 domains and the following kingdoms– Archaebacteria,Eubacteria, Protista, Fungi, Plantae, Animalia
Video courtesy: BillNyeRutz



• Cells larger than eukaryotes with distinct nucleus, nuclear membrane,
• Chromosome is present as nuclear reticulum
• Membrane bound cellular organelles like mitochondria, Golgi, plastids present
• Ribosomes are usually attached with E.R. cytoplasm with movement.
• Presence of splicing of mechanism
• Ribosome granules are 60S and 40s, jointly 80s
• Mitotic apparatus present
• Multistranded flagella with (9+2)orientation present
• DNA with histone proteins
• Presence of nickase enzyme that cuts mRNA
• Cell reproduction occurs by mitosis and meiosis